After departing from Clare Municipal Airport (48D) in Michigan, the pilot raised the landing gear handle and the gear motor continued to operate longer than normal, with an abnormal sound toward the end of the retract sequence.
The Cessna 210’s right main gear did not fully retract and hung about 45° rearward. The left main gear was not visible from the pilot’s vantage. The pilot troubleshot the issue for 20 to 25 minutes by completing the emergency procedure checklists, but the landing gear did not respond.
At some point during the troubleshooting, the nose landing gear fully extended.
The pilot continued the flight to Bishop International Airport (KFNT) in Flint, Michigan, and declared an emergency with air traffic control.
Before landing he attempted to extend the landing gear, but was only able to get the nose gear to extend. During a fly-by ATC confirmed that both main landing gear were not extended.
During the emergency landing, the nose gear remained extended and the two main gear were partially retracted. The airplane spun about 180° and came to rest on the runway.
To test the hydraulic system, the airplane was raised on jack stands and about 16 ounces of hydraulic fluid was added to the hydraulic reservoir. The emergency gear extension handle was actuated in attempt to extend the main landing gear before preforming the full functional test.
After 10 to 12 pumps, hydraulic fluid sprayed from a damaged hydraulic hose. There was no resistance felt from the emergency handle during actuation. The hydraulic system was unable to build pressure so the functional test was terminated.
The damaged hose was replaced with a new hose and the functional test was resumed. With the new hose installed, the emergency handle was actuated and the main landing gear extended and locked without a problem.
A review of the airplane’s maintenance records revealed that the last annual inspection was completed on Sept. 9, 2018, at 3,840.2 hours total airframe time. The airplane accumulated 32.8 hours since the annual inspection with no hydraulic hose or landing gear discrepancies noted. The nose gear door actuator hose was first replaced in October 1977, and then replaced again on April 4, 1996, at 2,059.2 hours total time. The airplane had accumulated 1,813.4 hours total time since the hydraulic hose was replaced.
The airplane manufacturer’s inspection guidelines are to perform a functional test and inspect the landing gear system every 200 hours. The maintenance manual states, “Each 5 years, overhaul all retraction and brake system components. Check for wear and replace all rubber packings and backups and hydraulic hoses.” This maintenance requirement applied to this airplane.
Additional guidance associated with the inspection was Cessna service newsletter, SNL85-54, issued during November 1985, which changed the 5-year overhaul/replacement requirement to an “on condition” overhaul/replacement interval based on part numbers involved. The damaged hose, p/n S2178-4-0095A, was considered an “on condition” component and could be replaced based on its condition at the time of maintenance.
In 1992, the airplane manufacturer released Cessna service bulletin, SEB92-8, that called for the replacement of all S2178-4 hydraulic hoses with p/n S2888-4-0095. According to available maintenance documentation, the airplane was never equipped with the updated hydraulic hose.
Probable Cause: The failure of the nose landing gear actuator hydraulic hose, which resulted in the loss of hydraulic fluid and hydraulic system pressure and a subsequent gear-up landing.
This January 2019 accident report is provided by the National Transportation Safety Board. Published as an educational tool, it is intended to help pilots learn from the misfortunes of others.